Cortisol and the Highly Sensitive Entrepreneur

Highly sensitive individuals have been found to have increased levels of cortisol in their system traced all the way back to when they were infants and small children. Cortisol is a stress response that if kept elevated in the body for extended periods of time can have detrimental effects to the highly sensitive individual.

Here are a few excerpts from Wikipedia on Cortisol:

Cortisol is a steroid hormone, in the glucocorticoid class of hormones, and is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland.[1] It is released in response to stress and low blood glucose. It functions to increase blood sugar through gluconeogenesis, to suppress the immune system, and to aid in the metabolism of fat, protein, and carbohydrate.[2] It also decreases bone formation.[3]

Memory – Cortisol works with epinephrine (adrenaline) to create memories of short-term emotional events; this is the proposed mechanism for storage of flash bulb memories, and may originate as a means to remember what to avoid in the future.[34] However, long-term exposure to cortisol damages cells in the hippocampus;[35] this damage results in impaired learning. Furthermore, it has been shown that cortisol inhibits memory retrieval of already stored information.[36][37]

Sleep, stress, and depression – Diurnal cycles of cortisol levels are found in humans.[6] In humans, the amount of cortisol present in the blood undergoes diurnal variation; the level peaks in the early morning (approximately 8 a.m.) and reaches its lowest level at about midnight-4 a.m., or three to five hours after the onset of sleep. Information about the light/dark cycle is transmitted from the retina to the paired suprachiasmatic nuclei in the hypothalamus. This pattern is not present at birth; estimates of when it begins vary from two weeks to nine months of age.[38]

Changed patterns of serum cortisol levels have been observed in connection with abnormal ACTH levels, clinical depression, psychological stress, and physiological stressors such as hypoglycemia, illness, fever, trauma, surgery, fear, pain, physical exertion, or temperature extremes. Cortisol levels may also differ for individuals with autism or Asperger’s syndrome.[39] There is also significant individual variation, although a given person tends to have consistent rhythms.[40]

Glucose – Cortisol counteracts insulin, contributes to hyperglycemia-causing hepatic gluconeogenesis[17] and inhibits the peripheral utilization of glucose (insulin resistance)[17] by decreasing the translocation of glucose transporters (especially GLUT4) to the cell membrane.[18] However, cortisol increases glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis) in the liver.[19] The permissive effect of cortisol on insulin action in liver glycogenesis is observed in hepatocyte culture in the laboratory, although the mechanism for this is unknown.

Bone and Collagen – Cortisol reduces bone formation,[3] favoring long-term development of osteoporosis (progressive bone disease). It transports potassium out of cells in exchange for an equal number of sodium ions (see above).[20] This can trigger the hyperkalemia of metabolic shock from surgery. Cortisol also reduces calcium absorption in the intestine.[21]

Collagen is an important component of connective tissue. It is vital for structural support and is found in muscles, tendons, and joints, as well as throughout the entire body. Cortisol down regulates the synthesis of collagen.[22]

Amino acid – Cortisol raises the free amino acids in the serum. It does this by inhibiting collagen formation, decreasing amino acid uptake by muscle, and inhibiting protein synthesis.[23] Cortisol (as opticortinol) may inversely inhibit IgA precursor cells in the intestines of calves.[24] Cortisol also inhibits IgA in serum, as it does IgM; however, it is not shown to inhibit IgE.[25]

Wound healing – Cortisol and the stress response have known deleterious effects on the immune system. High levels of perceived stress and increases in cortisol have been found to lengthen wound healing time in healthy, male adults. Those who had the lowest levels of cortisol the day following a 4 mm punch biopsy had the fastest healing time.[26] In dental students, wounds from punch biopsies took an average of 40% longer to heal when performed three days before an examination as opposed to biopsies performed on the same students during summer vacation.[27]

Immune response – Cortisol prevents the release of substances in the body that cause inflammation. It is used to treat conditions resulting from over activity of the B-cell-mediated antibody response. Examples include inflammatory and rheumatoid diseases, as well as allergies. Low-potency hydrocortisone, available as a non-prescription medicine in some countries, is used to treat skin problems such as rashes, and eczema.

It inhibits production of interleukin (IL)-12, interferon (IFN)-gamma, IFN-alpha and tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-alpha by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T helper (Th)1 cells, but upregulates IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 by Th2 cells. This results in a shift toward a Th2 immune response rather than general immunosuppression. The activation of the stress system (and resulting increase in cortisol and Th2 shift) seen during an infection is believed to be a protective mechanism which prevents an over activation of the inflammatory response.[10]

Cortisol can weaken the activity of the immune system. Cortisol prevents proliferation of T-cells by rendering the interleukin-2 producer T-cells unresponsive to interleukin-1 (IL-1), and unable to produce the T-cell growth factor (IL-2).[11] Cortisol also has a negative-feedback effect on interleukin-1.[12]

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